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Gastric mucosa, glands(oxyntic, pyloric), pits|Stomach cell & secretion|Histology of stomach/gastric

This is a schematic diagram showing
stomach. Stomach is divided into four parts
anatomically. Part in continuation of esophagus is cardia, the part projecting
as a dome is known as fundus, rest of the part of stomach is divided into body-
this part is body and the last 20% is antrum. Antrum continues as pylorus.
Entire stomach mucosa has glands which dig deep into the mucosa. There opening
into the mucosa is known as PIT but the glands in different parts have
different cells and secretion. That is why they have different names also. 80%
of the mucosa till body has OXYNTIC glands. Rest of the mucosa in Antrum has
PYLORIC glands. So let us see what is the difference between oxyntic and pyloric
glands. In this diagram we are seeing these glands. So the upper 80 percent has
oxyntic gland rest of the 20 percent has pyloric glands
this diagram is showing that glands dig deep into the mucosa so this is mucosa
and both type of glands you see they are dipping into the mucosal layer and the
opening is known as pit where they’re opening into the lumen of the stomach.
The pit continues as lumen of the glands. Now both types of glands at surface have
surface epithelial cells then there are mucous neck cells. Surface epithelial
cells and mucous neck cells secrete mucus into the lumen of the stomach.
Apart from that surface epithelial cells also secrete bicarbonate into the lumen
and these mucous neck cells also have another type of cells known as stem
cells. Stem cells produce cells which can migrate both up and down along the
glands to form other cells .But apart from these two type of cells which are
present in both oxyntic glands and pyloric glands, oxyntic glands have
PARIETAL cells and CHIEF cells also known as PEPTIC
cells. Parietal cells secrete HCL and intrinsic factor. Chief cells are the source
of an enzyme pepsinogen which is converted into its active form
pepsin by HCL. Oxyntic glands also have Enterochromaffin like cells which secrete
histamine. As opposed to oxyntic glands, pyloric glands have differences at the
base of the glands. These are G cells and D cells G cells
secrete gastrin while D cells secrete somatostatin. These different secretions
from oxyntic glands and pyloric glands have different functions so it is
important to know these cells and their secretions and we will see later that
how these secretions are important for regulation of secretion of hydrochloric

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